To understand the problem of paid donation, it is necessary to understand its drivers. There is a global shortage of organs available for transplantation. This gap between supply and demand has led many people in the West suffering from organ failure to be transplanted abroad, often in developing countries.5,6 Often these people do not ask questions about how this organ was obtained.7 The process is also fueled by unscrupulous medical professionals and brokers who recognize the potential for financial gain and exploit both the desperate receiver and the vulnerable seller. It is a sad indictment of the human condition that wherever there is a market, people strive to find a profit margin, even if it leads to human exploitation. New Jersey man sues for the right to sell his organs, argues 1984 organ trafficking ban law is unconstitutional Some oppose organ sales because they believe it will force society`s poorest to sell their bodies to exploitative third parties. Although it is terrible, some people facing extreme poverty are already resorting to selling their organs on the black market despite the illegality. In doing so, they risk unhygienic procedures performed by potential unlicensed surgeons and the possibility of not even getting paid. In fact, some groups steal organs. At least with a legal market, these groups could be held accountable. In Iran, the Iranian Patients` Kidney Foundation organizes kidney transplants and thus assumes the role of intermediary. Iran`s Ministry of Health prevents the sale of kidneys to foreigners, thus preventing organ trafficking to sell kidneys at foreign demand. Taken together, these two factors have led to the eradication of organ trafficking in Iran.
David Rothman, professor of social medicine at Columbia University and director of the Center on Medicine as a Profession, said: “What it`s really about is selling organs from living donors. There are very, very good reasons – many from behavioral economics, others from the past – that suggest that creating a market could reduce supply, not increase it. First and foremost, if I can buy it, why should I give it away?. In England, where the sale of blood was not allowed, donation rates were considerably higher than in the United States, where the sale of blood was allowed. Giving supply and demand a chance: legalizing the sale of organs In other countries, such legal protection does not exist, and in 2004 the World Health Organization (WHO) called on its members to “take measures to protect the poorest and most vulnerable groups from transplant tourism and the sale of tissues and organs”.3 Paid donation and transplant tourism are inextricably linked. Another debate at a 2008 summit organized by the Society of Transplantation and the International Society of Nephrology resulted in the Istanbul Declaration on Organ Trafficking and Transplant Tourism, which states: “Organ trafficking and transplant tourism violate the principles of equality, justice and respect for human dignity and should be banned. The commercialization of transplants targets poor and otherwise vulnerable donors, leading to injustice and injustice. 4 Proponents of the Organs for Sale program argue that we have a moral duty to save lives and reduce human suffering when it is within our power to do so.
Thousands and thousands of patients die every year simply because of an inadequate supply of organs. Patients who need kidneys wait for years hoping to find donors while undergoing painful and expensive dialysis treatments. Allowing a commercial market for organs could end unnecessary death and suffering by increasing the supply of organs. It is clear that cash payments increase people`s willingness to “donate” body parts, thereby increasing supply. Just look at the success of commercial markets in increasing the supply of blood and sperm. Given the large number of people who would be willing to part with their organs at a cost, those who need organs are much more likely to become healthier or better matched, increasing the number of successful transplants. Up to 70% of transplanted kidneys are likely to fail in the next 10 years, but this poor long-term outlook could be greatly improved if donors were better matched with recipients. Finally, by increasing the supply of organs, the market mechanism will eventually lower the price of organs so that more people can afford them. However, systems like the U.S. and similar systems like the U.K.
are not the only viable options. While these are the most globally accepted ways to meet the demand for organs, they are not the only ones; Iran has its own method of dealing with demand. Beginning in 1988, Iran launched a program to compensate donors for organ donation, eliminating the waiting list for kidney transplants. Under the current system, buyers and sellers can buy and sell kidneys at a fixed price of $4,600. Although parallel exploitation agreements have been concluded outside the state-regulated system, Iran has been able to avoid many of the ethical problems that often arise from the sale of organs. For example, one study found that while the majority of kidneys sold in Iran came from people from lower socioeconomic backgrounds, everyone, rich or poor, could have equal access to kidney transplants thanks to funding from nonprofits. As mentioned earlier, a financially desperate person who donates organs often leads to poor health outcomes, making that person even more economically unstable. However, in the Iranian system, donors enjoy health insurance for at least one year after surgery and reduced coverage for an additional period after the end of this coverage. Although the system is not perfect, it allows those who need kidneys to access it relatively easily and reduces the exploitation of the poor that prevails in countries such as Pakistan and the Philippines. It is estimated that if the U.S. established a similar legal market for the sale of kidneys and paid donors $45,000, it would not only eliminate the waiting list for kidneys, but would also save taxpayers $12 billion a year.
Essentially, the pros and cons of advocating for a legal organ market are difficult to assess. Monetary rewards for organs cause problems where the poor are disadvantaged. Yet paying donors is an easy way to dramatically increase organ reserves, potentially saving thousands of lives each year. In both cases, there will be ethical dilemmas. However, it is clear that if the U.S. wants to abolish the current waiting list, something has to change. If it is heavily regulated, it is not impossible to have a system that eliminates the waiting list for kidneys and protects donors from exploitation. Iran is a prime example; On this basis, the United States, as well as other countries currently struggling to meet the demand for organs, could use the Iranian model to meet demand and reduce the exploitation risks often associated with the organ market. He seems hopeful that in the coming years, as research continues on this topic, a more viable solution to the demand for organs in the United States will be implemented. The legal sale of organs will also reduce the burden on the NHS.
While waiting for kidney transplants, patients need dialysis, an expensive daily treatment that costs the NHS dearly. It has been calculated that each kidney transplant saves the NHS more than £200,000. The more kidney recipients, the fewer dialysis treatments are required. The individual is also motivated to stay healthy in order to get a higher price for their organs. This benefits not only individuals (both in terms of health and financial benefits), but also the country as a whole, as less preventable diseases such as obesity or smoking-related diseases need to be treated. The assessment of living kidney donors is complex, and less than half of potential donors are deemed medically appropriate.5 Evaluation requires sophisticated testing and knowledge of the donor`s current medical history and symptoms, which people trying to sell their organs often hide despite the possible consequences for themselves or the recipient. Do you need a kidney? In the world`s largest organ market, legalizing the sale of organs will increase the supply of organs. This means shorter waiting lists for those waiting for donations.
This means more people can get life-saving transplants. Allowing a private organ market to coexist with a donation system also means that those who can least afford it will have better access to organ donation, as the wealthiest pay for the luxury of not having to wait for a government body. A private market will mean new sources of supply, as those who do not currently donate for altruistic reasons will be encouraged by the pursuit of profit. The majority of those who have currently opted for organ donation are likely to continue to do so, regardless of the possibility of financial rewards. This will lead to altruistically donated organs reaching more of society`s most vulnerable people. Some sellers` organ recipients die and do not return home, making it impossible to determine the true results of purchased organ transplants. Those who arrive home need immediate care, with many going straight from the airport to the hospital, as transplant units aim to release patients and get them out of the country before problems arise.