Reconciliation in African Legal Philosophy
Nationalist and ideological philosophy could be seen as a special case of philosophical wisdom, whose subjects are not sages but ideologues. Alternatively, it was considered a subcategory of professional political philosophy. In both cases, the same problem arises in maintaining a distinction between ideology and philosophy, and between theorems of ideas and a particular type of reasoning. Examples include African socialism, nkrumaism, harambee and authenticity. “Africana philosophy” is a heuristic term – that is, one that suggests directions for the philosophical efforts of professional philosophers and other intellectuals devoted to issues relevant to African and African individuals and peoples.  There is a debate about defining the ethnophilosophical parameters of Africana philosophy and identifying what distinguishes it from other philosophical traditions. One of the implicit assumptions of ethnophilosophy is that a particular culture may have a philosophy that is not applicable and accessible to all peoples and cultures of the world. In A Discourse on African Philosophy: A New Perspective on Ubuntu and Transitional Justice in South Africa, Christian B. N. Gade argues that the ethnophilosophical approach to Africana philosophy as a static group property is highly problematic. His research on Ubuntu presents an alternative collective discourse on Africana philosophy that takes differences, historical developments, and social contexts seriously. According to Edwin Etieyibo and Jonathon O.
Chimakonam in his article “African Philosophy: Past, Present, and Future”, historical context plays an important role in Africana philosophy. History provides the framework within which we can examine philosophical problems. In terms of Africana philosophy, we must look at the big picture through the prism of African history. « There are no facts without history. »  A proponent of this form, Placide Tempels, argued in Bantu philosophy that the metaphysical categories of the Bantu people are reflected in their linguistic categories. According to this view, African philosophy can best be understood as springing from the basic assumptions about reality reflected in African languages. Another, more controversial application of this approach is embodied in the concept of blackness. Leopold Senghor, a proponent of blackness, argued that the distinctly African approach to reality is based on emotion rather than logic, operates in participation rather than analysis, and manifests itself through the arts rather than the sciences. Cheikh Anta Diop and Mubabinge Bilolo, on the other hand, while agreeing that African culture is unique, challenged the Africans` view as essentially emotional and artistic, arguing that Egypt was an African culture whose achievements in science, mathematics, architecture and philosophy were exceptional. This philosophy can also be slandered as too reductionist, because of the obvious scientific and scientific triumphs not only of ancient Egypt, but also of Nubia, Meroe, as well as the great library of Timbuktu, the vast trade networks and kingdoms of North Africa, West Africa, Central Africa, the Horn of Africa and Great Zimbabwe. and the other great empires of the South.
South-East and Central Africa. Africana philosophy is a species of Africana thought that includes theoretical issues raised by the critical examination of ideas in Africana cultures and their hybrid, mixed or creolized forms around the world. Since there was no reason for the peoples of the African continent to consider themselves Africans until this identity was imposed on them by conquest and colonization in modern times. this field of thought also refers to the unique questions raised by the emergence of “Africans” and their diaspora, referred to here as “Africana”. Africana philosophy refers to the philosophical dimensions of this field of thought.  Justice, truth and identity; Race, society and law all come into play dramatically as South Africa completes its turbulent transition to post-apartheid democracy. How did the new South Africa construct its concepts of reconciliation? To what extent does its historical emergence mean a rethinking, a reinvention, a new experience, a name change and a repoliticization of race? John and Ken discuss reconciliation with Daniel Herwitz, a philosopher who spent a lot of time in South Africa. Ken introduces Daniel Herwitz, professor of humanities at the University of Michigan. After completing his PhD, Daniel Herwitz worked as a professor of philosophy in South Africa. Herwitz believes that the whole idea of reconciliation is a Christian idea. Christian reconciliation involves accepting the Trinity (God, Jesus, and the Holy Spirit) as one. Ken points out that there is also a trinity in the reconciliation process: truth, amnesty and reconciliation.
Daniel Herwitz explains that truth commissions (like the one in Chile), which are completely merciful, do not lead to reconciliation between people because they lack violence. People don`t take them seriously. On the other hand, if truth commissions are only about punishment, they do not lead to reconciliation either, because harmony, forgiveness and coexistence are not put forward. Anglican Bishop Tutu was, in Herwitz`s words “with his sparkling shower,” influential for South African reconciliation. In South Africa, in order to obtain amnesty, a person had to fully disclose his crime and successfully argue that what he was doing served a political purpose. John emphasizes that the political end did not have to be justified. In the Horn of Africa, there are a number of sources documenting the development of a distinct Ethiopian philosophy from the first millennium onwards. Among the most notable examples of this tradition is the work of the 17th century philosopher Zera Yacob and his pupil Walda Heywat.  Yacob discusses religion, morality, and existence in his writings.  He comes to believe that every man will believe that his faith is just and that all men are created equal.   Nigerian philosopher Joseph I.
Omoregbe generally defines a philosopher as someone who tries to understand the phenomena of the world, the purpose of human existence, the nature of the world and man`s place in that world. This form of natural philosophy is recognizable in Africa, even before individual African philosophers can be distinguished in sources.  Like Western philosophy, African philosophy considers the perception of time, personality, space, and other subjects. Another example of such an approach is the work of Ebiegberi Joe Alagoa of the University of Port Harcourt in Nigeria, who argues in his book “An African Philosophy of History in Oral Tradition” for the existence of an African philosophy of history derived from traditional proverbs of the Niger Delta. Alagoa argues that in African philosophy, age is considered an important factor in acquiring wisdom and interpreting the past. To support this view, he cites proverbs such as “More days, more wisdom” and “What an old man sees sitting, a young man does not see standing.” Truth is considered eternal and immutable (“the truth never rots”), but people are prone to errors (“Even a four-legged horse stumbles and falls”). It is dangerous to judge by appearance (“A large eye does not mean clear vision”), but first-hand observation can be trusted (“He who sees, is not mistaken”). The past is not considered fundamentally different from the present, but all history is contemporary history (“A storyteller does not tell another season”). The future remains beyond knowledge (“Even a bird with a long neck cannot see the future”). Yet he says, “God will survive eternity.” History is considered vital (“He who does not know his origins is non-human”), and historians (known as the “son of the earth”) are highly revered (“The son of the earth has the piercing eyes of the python”).