A footnote/endnote usually contains a citation for a particular source or additional information on a point in the text. In both cases, a superscript number in the text identifies each note that corresponds to the note number displayed at the bottom of the page or at the end of the sheet. As a rule, the note is given at the end of the sentence or immediately after a quotation. Legal research relies heavily on citation. During the first year of law school, citation focuses primarily on cases, statutes, articles, and book citations. The citation of cases serves two main functions: first, a full citation allows the reader to find the decision; Second, it should provide valuable information about the case, including the year it was announced, the level of the court, jurisdiction, and case history (if any). An accurate quote provides a roadmap that leads the reader to where the law can be found. As with a real roadmap, quote users depend on their accuracy. Do not use multiple footnote numbers when referring to more than one source in the same place in your work.
If necessary, combine the citations into a footnote. The different citations of a footnote are separated by a semicolon, and the entire footnote ends with a period. If you combine multiple sources into a single footnote, place the footnote number at the end of the sentence or paragraph. For an example, see the McGill Guide, section 1.3.4. Avoid repetition: There is no need to repeat the information contained in the text of the quote. For example, if the name of the cited case is given in the body of your work, do not repeat the name in the quotation. Parallel citations: A parallel citation is simply a second place where you can find a reported case. It`s less important now, as most cases are easily accessible online.
Only add one if a neutral quote is not available, as in Oakes` example above. See 3.1 of the McGill Guide for more information. Exact citation: To properly cite other sources, it is often necessary to provide the exact page or paragraph number of the source you are relying on. This is called a pinpoint. Notes 1, 2 and 4 above show a specific paragraph (“in paragraph ##”), while note 5 shows a specific page (“at ##”). Note that “para” is used for the paragraph, but nothing is written before the Pinpoint page. The Canadian Guide to Uniform Legal Reference, 9. Edition (Toronto: Thomson Reuters, 2018), also known as the McGill Guide, was created to standardize Canadian legal citation and provide a nationally acceptable reference system. The guide has been adopted by numerous Canadian legal publications, including the Queen`s Law Journal, as an authority on legal citations. There are also other excellent free online legal citation guides, such as UBC`s Legal Citation Guide and the Citation Guide for Saskatchewan Courts. In this guide, we focus on an introduction to the latest edition of the McGill Guide.
To clarify all points and for more details, please consult the McGill Guide itself. NOTE: Your instructor may have different expectations from the rules outlined in this guide. Please confirm with them that the citation rules you follow are appropriate for your class. In general, in-text references are used for memos and facts, while footnotes are used for other legal texts. Neutral citations: Most courts now publish their decisions with a neutral citation indicating the year of the decision, the tribunal and a decision number. If available, a neutral citation should always be the main (first) citation. List it directly after the name of the case (case style); e.g. 2001 SCC 2 = neutral citation for the Supreme Court of Canada decision in the above-mentioned Sharpe case. Case:Cause style, | Main quote| Accurate, | Parallel quote| [short form]. R/Sharpe, 2001 SCC 2, paragraph 25 [Sharpe]. R v.
Oakes,  1 SCR 103, at paragraphs 32-34, 26 DLR (4th) 200 [Oakes]. In legal writing, there are various ways to inform the reader of the presence of additional information that supports, contrasts, disagrees and/or disagrees with the cited source and how it is used in the text. These are called introductory signs and can be found at the beginning of the footnote. If you cite more than one source in the footnote, you may need to use different introductory signals. For examples, see the McGill Guide, section 1.3.6.Si you provide support for your references, include a comparison or refutation of a point or argument. This can be done in footnotes by indicating the relationship of the cited source to your reasoning by introductory signals. The introductory signs are divided into several categories, and each category has its own introductory sign to inform the reader about how the quoted information will be used by the author. When using introductory signs, no punctuation marks are used between the sign and the cited source. This list is not exhaustive, but covers some standard introductory signals:See: The cited source directly supports the thesis. See also: The cited source provides additional support, but it is not the most important source to consider, or it does not have clear or direct context. But see: The cited source partially contradicts it, but does not directly contradict it. See for example: The cited source is one of many sources that provide support, but the other sources are not cited.
See General: The cited source supports and provides background information. See in particular: The quoted price is the strongest support among the various sources. Cf : Cf means to confer or compare. The price quoted is sufficiently similar or significantly supports the relevant point. Cons: The cited source is in direct contradiction. Here is an example of an introductory signal as it would appear in your footnote: See Madelein Cantin Cumyn, L`administration du bien d`autres (Cowansville, QC: Yvon Blais, 2000), No. 24-51; Emmanuel Gaillard, Le pouvoir en droit privé, Paris, Economica, 1985, pp. 150-155. See also Paul Roubier, Droits subjectifs et situations juridiques, Paris, Dalloz, 1963, pp. 185-187.
While the guide itself isn`t available online, you can learn how to cite the most common types of documents with a consistent legal citation style by checking out our abridged guide here. In Canada, legal citation generally follows the Canadian Guide to Uniform Legal Citation, commonly referred to as the McGill Guide. Legal writing primarily uses footnotes for references. If you are citing a source in your letter for the first time, include a full citation in a footnote. However, later citations may use ibid or supra, which are used to revert to the original full citation. Ibid. is used when you need to refer to the same source that was used in the footnote immediately preceding the ibid annotation. Ibid can also follow a supra or other ibid. If you use ibid., include the specific reference unless it is identical to the previous footnote. However, if the full citation is immediately before the note, you must use ibid. For example: 1McGill Law Journal, Canadian Guide to Uniform Legal Citation, 9th ed. (Toronto: Thomson Reuters, 2018) at 18.104.22.168 Ibid.
3 Ibid. The above is only used if the reference refers to a source for which a full citation has already been given. Note # is written above in the footnote to refer to the necessary footnote of the material cited above. The above refers only to the source and not to the point, so you must repeat or add the required point reference. You can insert “and the accompanying text” after the note above if you also want to direct the reader to the relevant main text (for example, footnote 2 and accompanying text). For example:1 McGill Law Journal, Canadian Guide to Uniform Legal Citation, 9th edition (Toronto: Thomson Reuters, 2018), p. 1.4.2; Electronic versions: Federal and state governments now publish their laws electronically on government websites, most of which are official versions. However, citations still use the print format (which means you don`t need to add the URL to the citation). For more information, see section 2.1.3 of the McGill Handbook (E-21 to E-27). If this is your first time citing a work in your article, you should include a full citation of the work in a footnote or endnote. This full quote will be listed again in your bibliography – see this section for more detailed rules. Subsequent quotes can be used ibid.
or above. See McGill`s guide at addresses E-12 to E-13. For sources available in print and electronic form, refer to the relevant section of the guide (e.g. case law on Article 3.8, newspapers on Article 6.13) and add information about the online source at the end of the traditional citation format. For information on online sources (direct URLs, archived URLs, and Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs)), see section 1.6 of the McGill Guide. When quoting bulk quotations where the name of the case law or statute appears in the preceding text, two footnotes are required – one after the name of the case or statute with the quotation(s) and another at the end of the quotation with the exact note. This guide illustrates the style of footnotes and endnotes. However, in most cases, you should also include a bibliography at the end of your work in addition to your footnotes/endnotes.
The bibliography should be a list of all the sources you used to create your work, whether you cited them directly or not, arranged alphabetically by author`s name (if available). A new public resource that allows learners to practice legal citation with interactive exercises. This tutorial complements the content of this guide. No login or registration required: Use above to direct the reader to a reference that includes the full original citation. Repeat the case or source name if it is not mentioned in the body of the text. If the name of the case or source is mentioned in the body of the text, but there is a risk of confusion with another source in the body of the text or footnote of the source, repeat the name of the case or source.