On February 15, 1961, the entire U.S. figure skating team and its coaches were killed in the crash of Sabena Flight 548 in Brussels, Belgium, en route to the World Championships in Prague. This tragedy put the U.S. skating program in a period of reconstruction. Figure skating was the first winter sport to be held at the Olympic Games; He made his Olympic debut at the 1908 Summer Olympics in London.   On March 20, 1914, an international figure skating championship was held in New Haven, Connecticut. This event was the precursor to the United States and the Canadian National Championships. However, international figure skating competitions were interrupted by World War I. The best result of the season (SB) of a skater/pair is the highest score obtained in a given season. There is an SB for the combined total score and rankings of the individual segments (short program/rhythm dance, freestyle/freestyle). Only the results obtained in the selected international competitions will be taken into account; The results of national competitions and some international events will not be taken into account. The best combined sum for each skater or pair appears in a list of the best times of the season, and the list can be used to determine the participants in the following season`s Grand Prix series. The competitions were held in the “English style” of skating, which was rigid and formal and bore little resemblance to modern figure skating.
Without changing the basic techniques of figure skaters, only a limited number of figure skating moves could be performed. This was still true in the mid-1800s, before American figure skater Jackson Haines, considered the “father of modern figure skating,” made improvements. In the mid-1860s, Haines introduced a new style of skating that included free and expressive techniques that became known as the “International Style.” Although popular in Europe, the international style of skating did not spread to the United States until long after Haines` death.  To compete internationally at the senior level, skaters must be at least 15 years of age by July 1 of the previous year. To qualify for the junior events, a skater must be at least 13 years old but under 19 years of age before this date (or 21 years old for male pair skaters and ice dancers).   A skater must meet the age requirement before arriving at his or her place of birth on July 1. For example, Adelina Sotnikova was arrested a few hours after 1. He was born in Moscow in July 1996 and was therefore only eligible to compete at the Junior World Championships in 2011 and the Senior World Championships until 2013.  UIS rules apply to international events. Many countries do not have age requirements for non-ISU national competitions, so some skaters compete at the senior level at the national level while not qualifying for international competitions. With these changes, the focus of figure skating shifted to increased athleticism. The landing of triple jumps during the short program and freestyle became more important.
In the 1980s, some skaters began practicing quadruple jumps. Jozef Sabovcik of Czechoslovakia landed a quadruple toe loop at the 1986 European Championships, which was recognized at the event, but was invalidated three weeks later due to a touchdown with his free foot.  At the 1988 World Championships, Kurt Browning of Canada completed the first quadruple toe loop that remained ratified.  Contrary to expectations, it took a few years for quads to become an important part of men`s skating.  In 1988, Japan`s Midori Ito became the first woman to win a triple axel, advancing the athletic and technical level of women`s programs. In 1989 it was only 20%, but in 1990 the mandatory figures were eliminated from international competition.  The Ice Skating Institute (ISI), an international rink trade organization, runs its own competition and testing program for recreational runners. Originally based in Minnesota, the organization now operates in Dallas, Texas. ISI contests are open to all members who have registered their tests.
There are very few “qualifiers”, although some districts hold gold contests for the first of this season. ISI competitions are particularly popular in Asian countries that do not have established ISU member associations. The Gay Games also included skating competitions for same-sex couples and ISI-sponsored dance couples. Other adult figure skating competitions also attract participants from different cultures. A margin injury occurs when a skater makes a jump on the wrong edge. The hollow is a groove on the underside of the blade that creates two different edges, inside and out. The inner edge of the blade is on the side closest to the skater, the outer edge is on the side furthest from the skater, and a flat edge refers to skating on both edges at the same time, which is not recommended. An unclear edge or edge violation is marked with an “e” and displayed in the GOE depending on the severity of the problem. Flutz and lip are the colloquial terms for a Lutz and a Flip Jump with an edge injury. In 1982, the ISU published a rule stating that a skater can only perform any type of triple once in a program, or twice if one of them is integrated into a suit or sequence. For a series of jumps to be considered a combination, each jump must start from the landing edge of the previous jump, with no steps, turns, or edge changes between jumps. Toe loops and loops are usually performed as a second or third jump in a suit because they take off from the outer back edge of the landing foot or skating leg.
To perform a salchow or somersault on the back of a suit, a half-loop (which is actually a full rotation but lands on a rear inner edge of the landing leg) can be used as a connection jump. In contrast, jump sequences are sets of jumps that can be connected by unlisted jumps or jumps.  The sequences are worth 80% of the combined value of the same jumps performed in combination. There are two types of jumps in ice skating: edge jumps and toe jumps. Edge jumps focus on the force to bend the knee to jump, while toe jumps focus on using the toe button to jump in the air. Edge jumps include the loop, the Salchow and the Axel. Toe jumps include toe loop, flip and lutz. The more rotations a skater can make, such as a double or triple jump, the higher the base value they receive for their score. As an Olympic sport, figure skating includes the following disciplines: The International Skating Union has decided to gradually raise the minimum age for figure skating from 15 to 17 for Olympic competitions before the next Winter Games in 2026, which will affect women`s singles.
The ISU has changed its age rules several times. Prior to the 1990s, 12 was the minimum age for senior international competitions.  In 1996, new rules were introduced requiring skaters to be at least 15 years of age by July 1 of the previous year to compete in the Olympic Games, World Championships, European Championships or all four continents.  The minimum age for all other senior internationals was 14 until it was raised to 15 in July 2014. The term “professional” in skating does not refer to skill, but to competitive status. Figure skaters competing at the highest level of international competition are not “professional” figure skaters. They are sometimes called amateurs, although some make money. Professional skaters include those who have lost their ISU eligibility and those who only perform in shows. They can be former Olympic and world champions who have finished their competitive careers, as well as skaters with little or no experience in international competition. In addition to ice shows, professional figure skaters often participate in professional competitions that take place around the world, each with its own format and rules. In the 1920s and 1930s, figure skating was dominated by Sonja Henie of Norway.
Henie turned the success of the competition into a lucrative professional career as a movie star and touring skater and also created the fashion for female skaters to wear short skirts and white boots.  Among the top male figure skaters of this period were Sweden`s Gillis Grafström and Austria`s Karl Schäfer. Television contributed to the sport`s popularity by showing skaters in the kiss and wine area after the competition.  Television has also played a role in eliminating the restrictive rules on amateur status that once dominated sport. In May 1990, the ISU voted to allow skaters who wanted to skate professionally to return to ISU competitions as long as they obtained permission from their national federation.  In order to retain skaters who would otherwise have waived their right to participate in lucrative professional events, the ISU introduced cash prizes at its major competitions in 1995, funded by revenues from the sale of television rights to these events. Field movements are a predetermined sequence required that demonstrates basic skating skills and edge control. As part of a competition program, they include sequences that may include spirals, spreading eagles, ina bauers, hydroblading and similar extended edge movements, as well as loops, twizzles, and various types of turns. Competition runners generally do not wear helmets or other protective equipment.
Especially in pair skating, there is a risk of head injuries due to falls from elevators.   Although pair skaters are the most vulnerable, serious head injuries can occur in all disciplines, including ice dance.    The partners accidentally slashed each other with their skates.   This can occur if partners get too close to each other during camel rotations.