Fifa Laws of the Game
The laws of football are relatively simple compared to most other team sports, but since many situations are subjective and match officials are human, some decisions will inevitably be wrong or provoke debate and discussion. For some, this discussion is part of the fun and appeal of the game, but whether the decisions are good or bad, the “spirit” of the game demands that the decisions of the referees are always respected. All authorities, especially coaches and team captains, have a clear responsibility to the game to respect match officials and their decisions. Francis Campbell of Blackheath, the largest “hacking” club, accused FA chairman Arthur Pember, Morley and their allies of mishandling the November 24 meeting to prevent the passage of “pro-piracy” laws.  Pember strongly rejected such a “charge of rude behaviour.” Later historians` judgments have been mixed: Young accuses Campbell of ” arrogance “, while Harvey supports Campbell`s accusations and accuses non-hackers of a ” coup ” against pro-piracy clubs.  Blackheath, along with the other “piracy” clubs, left the FA as a result of this dispute. The IFAB will continue to work with the global football community to ensure that changes in laws benefit football at all levels and around the world, and that the integrity of the game, laws and match officials is respected, valued and protected. When the International Football Federation on the continent was founded in Paris in 1904, he immediately declared that FIFA would abide by IFAB rules. The growing popularity of the international game led to the admission of FIFA representatives to the IFAB in 1913. Until 1958, it was still possible for British associations to vote together to pass changes against FIFA`s wishes. This has changed with the introduction of the current voting system, where FIFA`s support is needed but not enough to pass an amendment.  The current code of laws contained 50 pages of additional material, which was divided into many sections containing many diagrams, but not officially among the 17 most important laws. In 2007, many of these additional sections, as well as much of FIFA`s Q&A material, were restructured and merged into a new section, “Additional Instructions and Instructions for Referees”.
During the revision of the 2016-2017 law, the elements of this section were incorporated into the laws themselves. At its meeting on 8. In December 1863, the FA agreed to John Lillywhite publishing the laws, as stated in Bell`s Life in London. The first game played under the new rules was a 0–0 draw between Barnes and Richmond.  The adoption of laws was not universal among English football clubs. The Sheffield rules continued to be used by many. In addition, some decided not to participate in the FA in their early years and formed the Rugby Football Union in 1871.  In the nineteenth century, the word “football” could mean a variety of games in which players tried to move a ball into the opponent`s goal. The first published rules of “football” were those of the Rugby School (1845), which allowed intensive handling, followed by the Eton Field Game (1847), which was much more restrictive in the handling of the ball. Between the 1830s and 1850s, a number of rules were created for Cambridge University – but they were generally not published at the time, and many were later lost.
The first detailed sets of rules published by football clubs (rather than a school or university) were those of Sheffield FC (written in 1858, published in 1859), which codified a game that was played for 20 years until it was dropped in favour of the Football Association code, and those of Melbourne FC (1859). which are at the origin of Australian rules football. By the time the Football Association met in late 1863, many different sets of rules had been published, which differed greatly on issues such as the extent to which the ball could be handled, the treatment of offside, the amount of body contact with opponents, and the height at which a goal could be scored. The final version of the FA laws was officially passed and published in December 1863. Some notable differences from modern gambling are listed below: Accidents inevitably happen, but the laws aim to make gambling as safe as possible and balance player welfare and sporting fairness. This forces referees to enforce laws to deal heavily with players whose actions are too aggressive or dangerous. The laws embody the unacceptability of dangerous play in their disciplinary formulations such as “reckless challenge” and “endangering the safety of an adversary” or “excessive use of force.” Football must have laws that keep the game fair – this is a crucial foundation of the “beautiful game” and an essential feature of the “spirit” of the game. The best matches are those where the referee is rarely needed because the players play with respect for each other, match officials and the law. Laws cannot handle every possible situation, so if there is no direct provision in the laws, the IFAB expects the referee to make a decision in the “spirit” of the game and the laws – this often involves the question: “What would he want/expect football?” In 1997, a major revision deleted entire paragraphs and clarified many sections in order to simplify and strengthen the principles. These statutes are written in the English style of the common law and are intended to be guidelines and primary objectives, which are then clarified by practice, tradition and application by arbitrators.
Adjudicators are expected to use judgment and common sense in applying the law. They meet at least once a year to consider and adopt amendments to the text in its current form. The winter session usually results in an update of the laws on July 1 of each year, which takes effect immediately. The laws govern all international games and national games of member organizations.  At least six of the eight members of the IFAB Board must vote to accept a rule change. Four seats are held by FIFA to represent its 200+ member nations, the other four going to each of the British associations (the FA represents England, the SFA represents Scotland, the FAW represents Wales and the IFA represents Northern Ireland), meaning that no changes can be made without FIFA`s consent. but FIFA cannot change laws without the consent of at least two of the UK`s governing bodies.  In 1863, some football clubs followed the example of the rugby school by allowing the ball to be carried in their hands, allowing players to “hack” (kick in the shins) opponents who carried the ball. Other clubs have banned both training. At the FA meetings to draft the first draft of the laws, there was a bitter division between the “hacking” and “non-hacking” clubs. An FA meeting on 17 November 1863 discussed this issue, with the predominant “piracy” clubs.  The first draft of the Football Association legislation, drafted by FA Secretary Ebenezer Cobb Morley, reflected this preference and included many features that would now be considered closer to rugby than association football.
Football is the biggest sport in the world. It is played on all continents, in all countries and at different levels. The fact that the playing field is the same for all football around the world, from the FIFA World Cup™ to a match between young children in a remote village, is a considerable strength that must continue to be used everywhere for the benefit of football. The Current Rules of the Game (LOTG) consist of seventeen individual laws, with each law containing several rules and instructions: The laws must also contribute to the safety and well-being of players, and it is the responsibility of the IFAB to respond promptly and appropriately to assist participants in the game through laws if necessary. For example, in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, a temporary amendment to Bill 3 was introduced to allow high-level competitions to increase the maximum number of substitutions for each team from three to five. This change is now part of the 2022/23 rules of the game. Trials of additional “concussion replacements” will continue, allowing teams to prioritize the well-being of a player who has a real or suspected concussion without suffering a numerical disadvantage. Any proposed changes will focus on fairness, integrity, respect, safety, enjoyment of participants and spectators and, where appropriate, the use of technology to enhance the game.