Canada`s Legal System Is Based on
Civil codes contain comprehensive rules. Many are formulated as general principles for dealing with any dispute that may arise. Unlike common law courts, courts in a civil law system first review a civil code and then refer to earlier decisions to see if they are consistent. Nine of the provinces, with the exception of Quebec and the federal territories, follow the common law legal tradition.  Although federal territories apply customary law, Indigenous nations and their associated territories do not (see below). Similarly, under provincial court statutes, courts have the power to enforce justice. When there is little or no existing Canadian decision on a particular legal issue and it becomes necessary to turn to a non-Canadian legal authority for guidance, English and American court decisions are often used.  Given the long history between English and Canadian law, the English Court of Appeal and the House of Lords are often cited as persuasive authorities and considered persuasive and often followed.  However, where the legal issue at issue relates to constitutional or data protection law issues, U.S.
court decisions are more likely to be used by Canadian lawyers because there is much more jurisdiction in the United States. Law as English law in these areas. [Citation needed] Canadian copyright law governs legally enforceable rights in creative and artistic works under Canadian law.  Canada was founded on the territories of origin of more than 900 different Indigenous groups, each using different Indigenous legal traditions. Cree, Blackfoot, Mi`kmaq and many other First Nations; Inuit; and métis will apply their own legal traditions in everyday life, drafting contracts, working with government and corporate officials, environmental management and criminal proceedings, and family law. Most abide by their laws through traditional governance alongside elected officials and federal laws.  The legal precedents created thousands of years ago are known through stories and are derived from the actions and reactions of the past, as well as from the ongoing interpretation by elders and law enforcement – the same process by which almost all legal traditions, customary laws, and civil codes are formed. Canada is a nation governed by laws, and the Canadian legal system is the means by which those laws are written, organized, enforced and interpreted. This document provides a brief summary of the structure of the Canadian legal system. At the beginning of the colonial period, “Canada” did not really exist legally. The nation was simply an overseas part of British territory subject to British law. Things began to change in the late 18th century when Britain allowed its Canadian colonies to have their own parliaments, allowing Canadian politicians to write some of their own laws for the first time.
In 1867, Britain approved the creation of the Constitution of Canada and Canada was given a large number of new legislative powers. In 1931, Canada officially ceased to be a colony of Great Britain and the British Parliament lost its powers to pass laws for Canada. The last rope was cut in 1982 when Britain relinquished the power to amend Canada`s constitution. As the oldest and continuously functioning representative democracy in the world, the Iroquois Six Confederate Nations of the Longhouse or the Haudenosaunee in an estimated year 1142 AD.  The unification of the five original nations (the Onödowáʼga:/Seneca, the Gayogo̱hó:nǫʼ/Cayuga, the Onyota`a:ka/Oneida, the Onöñda`gaga`/Onondaga and the Kanienʼkehá:ka/Mohawk) and thus the central legal framework, is told orally from the constitutional wampum and is symbolized by the tree of peace, the white pine of the East.  From about 1931 (when Britain stopped legislating for Canada) to 1982, Canadian law operated according to a principle known as parliamentary supremacy. Under this concept, there was no authority superior to that of the Canadian Parliament when it came to deciding what was legal and what was not. Every rule passed by Parliament was the law, and that was it. The majority of Canadian crimes are enshrined in the Criminal Code of Canada, a huge 300,000-word law that is constantly updated as Parliament creates new crimes. Every year, various advocacy groups publish an up-to-date version of the Criminal Code in book form that lawyers and laymen can easily search for to see what is illegal and what is not. The term “civil law” is used to refer to two very different things that can be a little confusing at first for people trying to understand the justice system. Sometimes, unlike the common law, the term is used to refer to the legal system based on a civil code such as the Justinian Code or the Civil Code of Quebec.
In its other sense, civil law refers to matters of private law as opposed to public law and, in particular, to criminal law, which deals with the harm caused to society as a whole. The context usually determines what type of civil law it is. Mi`kma`ki is the home of “Netukulimk”, which is “the use of the Creator`s natural generosity for self-sufficiency and well-being of the individual and the community. Netukulimk achieves appropriate standards of community nutrition and economic well-being without compromising the integrity, diversity or productivity of our environment.  Within Netukulimk`s conceptual framework, the Mi`kmaw Act serves as the basis for the preservation of Mi`kmaw families, communities and society.  This way of thinking understands the whole of life as interconnected and describes the rights and duties of the Mi`kmaq with their families, communities, nations and ecosystem.  Although the many legal traditions appear similar in that none have been codified, each has very different legal lines. Many laws come from stories, which in turn may come from Scriptures or marks, such as geographical features, petroglyphs, pictograms, Wiigwaasabakoon, etc. The government of the Nunangat Inuit differed considerably from that of its many neighbour Denendeh, as the various Dene laws of Denendeh differed considerably from the laws governing Lingít Aaní, Gitx̱san Lax̱yip or Wet`suwet`en Yin`tah;  and, as these differ from Haudenosaunee, Eeyou-Istchee or Mi`kma`ki`s. One thing most indigenous legal and governmental traditions have in common is the use of clans like the Doodeman of Anishinaabek (although most are matrilineal like Gitx̱sans Wilps).  The RCMP is responsible for criminal activity that extends beyond several provinces or criminal activity that is considered a matter of national security. Responsibility for national security is also exercised by the Canadian Security Intelligence Service (CSIS), often referred to as Canada`s “national spy agency,” which secretly monitors things like terrorist threats, Internet crimes and foreign espionage.
The Supreme Court of Canada (French: Supreme Court of Canada) is the highest court in Canada and the last court of appeal in the Canadian judicial system. Parliament created it in 1875 by a bill under the name of the “General Court of Appeal of Canada”.  Prior to 1949, cases could be challenged before the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in the United Kingdom, and some cases completely circumvented the Supreme Court of Canada.  With the exception of the Supreme Court, the Canadian judicial system is divided into two categories of courts:  superior courts of general jurisdiction and courts of limited jurisdiction, sometimes referred to as subordinate courts. The supreme courts, created and maintained by the provinces, are divided into superior courts of the home court and superior courts of appeal. These courts are sometimes referred to as “section 96” courts, in reference to section 96 of the Constitution Act, 1867, which gives the federal government the power to appoint judges to these courts.  As courts of general jurisdiction, the supreme state courts of the home jurisdiction have jurisdiction over all matters, both under federal and state law, unless the case has been assigned to another court or administrative authority by a law passed by the competent legislative body. The supreme courts of the home jurisdiction have extensive civil jurisdiction under federal and state laws.