Can Provinces Make Laws
The Parliament of Canada has exclusive jurisdiction under section 91 of the Constitution Act, 1867 to resolve matters relating to bankruptcy and insolvency. Subsequently, it passed a number of statutes, including the Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act (“BIA”) and the Winding-up and Restructuring Act (which applies primarily only to financial institutions under federal jurisdiction). In the application of these laws, the law of the State has important consequences. Paragraph 67(1)(b) of the BIA provides that “any property that is exempt from enforcement or seizure in respect of the bankrupt debtor under the laws in force in the province in which the property is located and in which the bankrupt debtor resides” is not divisible among its creditors.  Provincial legislation under the property and civil rights powers of the Constitution Act, 1867 regulates the resolution of financial hardship that arises before insolvency begins. Parliament is the national legislature of South Africa. As such, one of its main tasks is to pass new laws, amend existing laws and repeal or abolish old laws. This function is governed by the Constitution of South Africa, which regulates and enforces all laws and practices in South Africa. Laws are transmitted by means of a symbolic wampum and are divided into a total of 117 articles. The transmission takes place each year by telling orally the story of confederation. This story tells the journeys and history of the Great Peacemaker, Lake Jigonh and Hiawatha, when they brought peace to the Haudenosaunee country. Through them, governmental structures and legal institutions have been created to unite families metaphorically, socially, economically and concretely. As such, nations are conceived as older and younger brothers, and when asked how this new structure would work, the peacemaker replied: “It will take the form of the longhouse, in which there are many herds, one for each family, but all live as one household under a main mother.
They should have a mind and live under a law. Thought will replace murder, and there will be a community.  The Constitution Act, 1867 also provides that, although the provinces establish their own superior courts, the federal government appoints its judges.  It also gives the federal parliament the right to establish a judicial system with jurisdiction over federal law and a general court of appeal to hear appeals against decisions of federal and state courts.  The latter power led to the creation of the Supreme Court of Canada by the federal Parliament.  The Constitution provides only for judges appointed by the state. Provincial judges are appointed in accordance with provincial laws. There are also local or local governments. They are created under provincial laws and can pass by-laws that govern a variety of local issues: zoning, smoking, pesticide use, parking, business regulations, and building permits. These are just a few examples of overlaps that have occurred in the municipal context.
Determining which level of government has jurisdiction when such overlaps occur has often resulted in lengthy and lengthy litigation that has taken up much of the courts` time. This paper will focus on examples of cases where overlaps have occurred primarily with respect to the interpretation of municipal legislation and the federal government`s jurisdiction in the areas of telecommunications, the environment, postal services and airports. The Revised Statutes of Canada are the legal consolidation of laws passed by the Canadian Parliament. In all Canadian provinces, there is a similar codification of the province`s law. The Revised Statutes of British Columbia, the Revised Statutes of Alberta, the Statutes of Manitoba, the Revised Statutes of Saskatchewan, 1978, the Revised Statutes of New Brunswick, the Revised Statutes of Nova Scotia, the Statutes of Prince Edward Island, the Consolidated Statutes of Newfoundland and Labrador, the Revised Statutes of Ontario and the Revised Statutes of Quebec are the legal groupings of each Canadian province. They contain all the important topics and most of the laws issued by the governments of each province. These laws in these provinces do not contain criminal law because criminal law in Canada is an exclusive jurisdiction of the federal Parliament, which adopted the Penal Code contained in the revised statutes of Canada. Provinces are responsible for the administration of justice, including criminal prosecution in their respective provinces, although they are not in a position to enact criminal laws.  Provinces have the power to order quasi-criminal or regulatory crimes in various administrative and other areas, and each province has done so with countless rules and regulations in a wide range of areas.  The Acts of 1867 and 1982 are probably the most well-known written parts of the Constitution. However, there are also other British and Canadian laws that are also part of the Constitution. For example, laws that add more provinces to Canada are constitutional documents.
Older documents, such as old treaties, royal proclamations, and even some 18th century British laws, are considered part of the Constitution. Pursuant to section 5.4 of the Aviation Act, the Governor General may make regulations for Commission airports to prevent land on or near an airport or airport site from being used or developed in a manner inconsistent with the safe operation of an airport or aircraft.  The Minister of Transport refused to issue a zoning order in the hope that the parties would resolve their differences by mutual agreement. The Ontario Minister of Housing then imposed a provincial zoning by-law under the Planning Act, which imposed height restrictions on buildings around the airport. Mr. Walker and others challenged the provincial zoning order in the Supreme Court. Both the Parliament of Canada and the provincial and territorial legislatures have the power or jurisdiction to legislate. Parliament can legislate for all of Canada, but only on matters assigned to it by the Constitution. A provincial or territorial legislature may legislate only on matters within the boundaries of the province.
Provinces may also establish courts of limited jurisdiction, whose jurisdiction is limited exclusively to what is contained in the legal grant of jurisdiction. These courts are often referred to as “provincial courts,” although the high courts established by the provinces are also provincial courts. Provincial courts have extensive criminal jurisdiction under the Federal Criminal Code, and generally also have limited civil jurisdiction in matters under provincial jurisdiction, such as small claims and certain family matters. Provincial court judges are appointed by provincial governments.  The Constitution Act, 1867 confers powers on the provincial and federal governments. Matters under federal jurisdiction include criminal law, trade and commerce, banking and immigration.  The federal government also has the residual power to enact laws necessary for the “peace, order and good governance” of Canada.  One of the main areas of provincial jurisdiction is property and citizenship law, which includes extensive powers to enact civil laws such as property law, contract law and family law.
Provincial jurisdiction includes other matters such as natural resources, hospitals, communities, education (with the exception of education on First Nation reserves).   In exceptional circumstances, Parliament may enact provincial legislation to protect national security, maintain economic unity, establish minimum standards for the provision of services, or prevent inappropriate measures by one province that harm the interests of another province or country. The Constitution may have meant one thing in 1867, but it could mean something different today. For example, since 1867, the Constitution has stipulated that the federal government can legislate on marriage. In 1867, the meaning of marriage was limited to being between a man and a woman. If the government had tried to change the definition of marriage, it would probably have been unconstitutional. However, in 2004, the Supreme Court of Canada stated that the government could pass laws on same-sex marriage.  The Constitution had evolved at that time to reflect the values of society. Some of these unwritten parts are called unwritten principles. These principles are not rules. Instead, they “breathe life into the Constitution and fill some of the `gaps` in the text. For example, democracy is an important unwritten principle of the Constitution.
 The courts use this principle as an instrument for interpreting the Constitution. Democracy means, in part, that legislators are elected by referendum and citizens have the right to vote.  The principle of democracy includes respect for human dignity, justice and equality, the diversity of religions and the participation of individuals in society.  When courts make decisions on the basis of the Constitution, they can guide their decisions according to democratic principles. After 1867, the Constitution began to develop as the courts interpreted it. Until 1975, it was sometimes modified as parliament grew and more provinces were added. Perhaps the reason for this overlap is that the rules are not as clear as originally intended. For example, it has been found that environmental regulation under the POGG falls under the jurisdiction of the federal government, but federal legislation in this area appears to be inconsistent with the power of the provinces to regulate property and civil rights under section 92.13 of the Constitution. Similarly, under the POGG, under section 91 of the Constitution, the federal government has exclusive jurisdiction over the regulation of aerodromes, but the province has jurisdiction over property and civil rights (see .